This majestic ruin rises above the valley of the Neckar River on the slope of the royal grounds. The Staufer family built the first castle here. To this day, the mighty walls of the ruins are the landmark. As the royal residence of the Earls, and then the princes of the Palatinate, the castle was destroyed in the War of the Palatinate Succession by French troops. After that the princes transferred their residence to the city of Mannheim. After Prince Karl Theodor transferred his seat of power to Munich, Heidelberg and Mannheim were transferred in 1803 to the kingdom of Baden. Numerous poets and artists such as William Turner memorialized the romantic ruins of the Castle.